1. (a) Give the meaning of the term “Laboratory apparatii”

b) Draw the diagram of the following apparatus used for

        i. Preventing soot when boiling process

        ii. Grinding particles into power

        iii. Enlargement of specimen for clear observation

         iv. Boiling of little amount of solution during food test experiment

c) According the laboratory rules what should you do in the following situations?

        i. While boiling water, you realize that you need to get a book from the classroom.

        ii. You need to perform an experiment but there is nobody in the laboratory

        iii. You have finished biology experiment of the day

        iv. Your classmate is bitten by a mouse during a learning activities

2. (a) Draw a well labeled structure of sperm cell

(b) Give two differences between sexual and asexual reproduction

(c) Around the school farm there are two kinds of flower classified as group A and group B. Group A flower attracts insect so much and group B were not. The two kinds undergo different type of pollination

        i. Identify the types of pollination favorable for group A and B

        ii. Differentiate flowers in group A from those in group B (3 points)

3. (a) The table below shows the components of plasma, filtrate and urine in mammal. Study it carefully and answer the question that follows.













Uric acid




Amino Acid








Mineral salts








Ammonium (compound)




i) With reasons, name the components that are found in the plasma and glomerular filtrate but absent in urine

ii) Explain how does the disease diabetes mellitus affect the concentration of glucose in the blood and glomerular filtrate and consequently glucose is found in the urine

iii) Which component is found in the plasma but never present in the glomerular filtrate why?

(b) Explain why plants lack specialized excretory organs (4 points)

4. (a) State Mendel’s first law of inheritance

(b) Distinguish between the following pairs of terms

i) Gene and allele

ii) Diploid and haploid

iii) Phenotype and genotype.

c) DNA is a polymer built up from monomers. Each monomer itself composed of three parts: a nitrogenous base, a sugar and phosphate group

i. Give the name of the monomer found in the DNA molecule

ii. Name the sugar involved in DNA structure

iii. The nitrogenous bases in DNA are usually represented by initials A,C, G and T. Write their full names

iv. How does the base pairing in RNA differ from that of DNA?

5. (a) Explain the following conceptual statement as applied in biology

i) Vitamin B and C needed to be taken regularly

ii) We should include rouphage in our diets even though it is not a nutrient.

iii) Ruminant can digest cellulose human being can not

iv) A snake bite victim should not drink alcohol

v) The ileum is very long about six metres

(b) (i) Define alimentary canal

ii) Study the diagram below and give the function of parts A, B and C

6. a) Construct sensible food web from the given organisms, Grass, Grass hopper, Rabbit, Toad, Snake, and Vulture.

b) Your biology teacher asked you to draw well labeled diagram of plant cell, draw and show the parts responsible for the following:

i) Protect and give the cell a definite shape.

ii) Allows selective movement of substance across the cell.

iii) Site for chemical reaction.

iv) Home of the hereditary materials.

(c) Highlight differences between Mango tree and cat based on their basic unit of life (four points).

7.(a) Msemakweli wanted to drink hot chocolate which was contained in a glass. He accidentally dropped it due to hotness and the glass broke. Using a well labeled diagram describe a detail the mechanism of the action which took place in his body from time of lifting the glass until he dropped it. Give the name of this action

(b) Explain the mechanism of accommodation of the eye

10. Food preservation is very important in Human life. Discuss its importance under the following guideline

i. Need for preservation

ii. Local (traditional) food preservation methods and their biological effects

iii. Advantages of local food preserving methods.

8. Explain how parts of the mammalian heart are adapted to their function (diagram is necessary).

9. Describe the evidence of organic evolution.

10. a) What do you understand by the term

i. Biology laboratory

ii. An accident

b) An engineer needs to approve a building to be used as a Biology laboratory. List four (4) qualities that she or he must consider in order for that building to be considered as a good Biology laboratory.

11. Mr. Juma got a car accident and was badly injured. During the first aid Mr. Mabula put on glove, took a cotton wool and give him painkiller, what was the uses of:-

        i. gloves

        ii. cotton wool

        ii. painkiller

12. Explain the statements:-

        i. Why is not allowed to sleep in the room with burning charcoal burner.

        ii. Why the person who climbing high mountain face difficult on breathing.

13. a) Define the following terms

        i. Gene

        ii. Phenotype

b) In an experiment, beans seeds having a smooth seed coat were crossed with beans having wrinkled seed coat. All seed obtained in the first filial generation (F1) and a smooth seed coat. Use a genetic cross to find out the formation of (F1) individuals.

14. As a student of form four, distinguish between hypogeal seed germination from epigeal seed germination, give two (4) points.(diagram is necessary)

15. (a) Explain why

        i. Desert animals have long loop of Henle and fewer glomeruli

         ii. The proximal convoluted tube is coiled

(b) (i) What happens to excess amino acid in the liver

        (ii) Name three (3) excretory products from plants that are useful to human

16. Plants manufacture their own food. What is the name given for that process, and elaborate any three (3) raw materials and three (3) products given out on that process? And give out the equation of that process

17. Human being is among of the homothermic organisms, Describe how homothermic organisms regulate their body temperature during hot and cold condition. Any six (6) points needed.

18. explain the relationship between mitosis and growth.

19. a) Draw a well-labeled diagram of apical meristem in the shoot.

        b) locate the region of much cell division.

        c) Explain the terminology “apical meristem” as used in the diagram above.

        d) Why is said that growth in plants is apical?

20. a) Mention the terminology used to describe the growth curve in man.

        b) Draw a well-labeled graph that is mentioned in (a) above.

        c) Describe in length the four phases of growth in the curve drawn in (b) above

21. (a) Define the following terms as used in biology.

(i) Biology laboratory (ii) Botany

(b) Give the function of the following parts of the light microscope (One function in each).


        (ii) objective lens

        (iii)Eye piece


        (v) Limb or Arm


        ( vii)Course adjustment

        (viii) Stage

22. (a) (i) What are the raw materials for photosynthesis

        (ii) List one product of photosynthesis

(b)State how the ileum is adapted for absorption function.

23. (a) Differentiate between a zygote and a sperm

(b) Name the hormone in human body which

(i) Secreted during birth to initiate labour (ii) Stimulate milk production

(iii) Re absorption of water in the kidney (iv) Sodium absorption in the kidney.

24. (a) Differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal germination

(b) Mention condition necessary for seed germination

        (c) Describe changes occurs during seed germination

25. (a) What do you know by the following terms

            (ii) Genetics

        (iii) Albinism

        (iv) Complete dominance

        (v) Mutation

(b) Mr and Mrs Msakanjia happen to have four children in their marriage, one of them is albino, use the genetic diagram to prove the statement above.

26. (a) Give the function of

(vi) Red blood cell

(vii) White blood cells

(b) Outline six roles played by the blood in Human beings.

27. (a) Explain the term Osmoregulation

(b) Briefly explain the mechanisms of regulating sugar level in theblood.

28. (a) How could the body remove or destroy a bacterium that lands

    (i) On the cornea 
    (ii) On the Hand 
    (iii) In the bronchus

     (iv) In the stomach

(b) Explain why it is

(i) Not health to sleep in a closed room with many potted plants

(ii) Dangerous to sleep in a poorly ventilated room with a charcoal burner on.

29. (a) Write short notes on the following terms; food chain and food web.

(b) Construct sensible food web from the given organisms, Grass, Grass hopper, Rabbit, Toad, Snake, and Vulture

30. (a) Differentiate between Sexual reproduction and Asexual reproduction

(b) State two behaviors which may lead to the following risk.

i) STD’s

ii) HIV infection

31. During the rainy season the common problem of eruption of diseases become more serious. Cholera has been a long-term problem in Tanzania. The government tried to eradicate the disease but has not been very successful

(a) Explain the possible reasons that have led to the failure of problem of cholera

(b) Explain how this disease can be eradicated successfully in terms of its mode of Transmissions, control, and curative methods.

32. Food preservation is very important in Human life. Discuss its importance under the following guideline

(a) Need for preservation

(b) Local (traditional) food preservation methods and their biological effects

(c) Advantages of local food preserving methods.

33. With the aid of well labeled diagram explain clearly how the gaseous exchange occurs across alveolus

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