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Below is the list  of biology  competence-based questions based on ordinary-level education curricula, 
1. Give four reasons why a transport system is necessary in high-animal

2. How would you test for Monosaccharide

3. a) Define the term photosynthesis

        b) Give a reason why photosynthesis does not take place during the night.

4. Draw a well-labeled diagram of a mushroom

5. Outline conditions necessary for photosynthesis

6. How would you find out whether light chlorophyll and carbon dioxide are necessary for photosynthesis?

7. How is the leaf adapted for photosynthesis

8. Compare osmosis with diffusion

9. What are the factors affecting transpiration? How would you demonstrate them experimentally?

10. Outline the function of four types of blood cells.

11. Briefly explain factors affecting the rate of gaseous exchange five factors

12. In plant gaseous exchange take place in which main groups describe?

13. Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

14. Explain the causes, signs, symptoms, prevention, and control methods of the following disease

            a) Asthma 
            b) Lung cancer 
            c) Pneumonia

15. How does the structure of alveoli maximize gaseous exchange?

16. Differentiate between Gaseous exchange and respiration

17. Explain the difference between inhalation and exhalation

19. Explain the importance of gaseous exchange in human being

20. Briefly explain any three factors that can affect the rate of gaseous exchange in the human body.

21. Explain the main characteristics of the respiratory surface.

22. How is oxygen transported in the blood?

23. Why do arteries have thicker walls than veins.

24. Explain the importance of thrombocytes

25. Explain why arteries do not need valves

26. Explain why small organisms such as amoeba and paramecium do not need the blood circulatory system.

27. Briefly explain the effect of HIV on white blood cell

28. Describe what will happen to the flow of blood in the left side of the heart.

29. Explain one reason for the following phenomena

        i) The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the wall of the right ventricle

        ii) Frequent urination occurs during cold condition

30. Describe any two adaptations of the leaf to its function

31. State three adaptations of the ileum toward the absorption process.

32. The mammalian heart is enclosed by a double layer of membrane called PERICARDUM, explain the following

        a) What makes this membrane prevent the heart from over-expanding when it is beating very fast?

        b) Why the inner part of the heart is lined with blood vessel? Give two point

33. Name two types of fungi that reproduce by budding

34. Express in one sentence why the following features occur to these organisms

        i) Streamlined body of birds

        ii) Ciliated trachea of human

35. Give two examples for each of the following group of parasitic organism

        a) Endo-parasite

        b) Ecto-parasite

26. Briefly explain how the structure of leaf is adapted to allow rapid gaseous exchange

27. Explain how the following affect the rate of transpiration

        i) Distribution of stomata

        ii) Size of the leaf

28. Member of kalibusele village is hunters, farmers and fisherman. They obtain a variety of food from their activities but do not have food processing industry, with one example in each case explain four methods which will help villagers to preserve their food.

29. While performing surgery on mammals two blood vessels were cuts by mistake. In one of the vessel blood flow out with high pressure while in the other vessel blood flow out with low pressure.

        a) What are the names of the two blood vessels?

        b) Why one blood vessel had high pressure and the other low pressure briefly explain?

30 .Explain the function of vascular system in plant

31. Explain briefly the following phenomena “The ribs move outward and upward while the diaphragm flattened when air enter the lung”.

32. Explain why food web are more representative feeding relationship than food chain.

33. Contrast ruminant digestive and human digestive system.

34. a)Differentiate between interspecific competitions from intraspecific competition

b) Write down a balanced equation of an anaerobic respiration in

        i) Plant

        ii) Animal

35. Transpiration is a wasteful process however it is important to plant, explain by

        i) Defining transpiration

        ii) Importance of transpiration

        iii) Mention four factors which affect the rate of transpiration

36. a) Define the following

        i) Tissue fluid

        ii) Respiration

b) Give five factors affecting the rate of respiration in animal

37. a) Which of the following characteristic apply to angiosperm and which apply to Gymnosperm

        i) Flower produced

        ii) Flower not produced

        iii) Seed naked

        iv) Seed inside ovary

        v) Xylem has vessels

        vi) Xylem lack vessels

    b) Which plant tissues resemble in function with the body tissue of mammals

38. a) What is the major function performed by the lung in your body

        b) How the lung adapted to the function they perform

39. a) What is photosynthesis

        b) What are the requirements of photosynthesis?

        c) What is the fate of the product of photosynthesis?

40. Giving example write an essay on the economic importance of fungi

41. Discuss the role of Ileum in food digestion and absorption

42. a) State one rich sources of iron in the diet of a human, one function of iron and one disease caused by deficiency of iron

        b) Why do women require more iron than men?

43. For each of the following biological substance give it name and briefly describe its function

        i) Green pigment in flowering plant

        ii) Red pigment in the blood of animal

        iii) Green liquid squirted, bit by bit into the duodenum of human

        iv) Jelly like fluid in the inner chamber of the eye.

44. a) i) Name two blood vessel which carry blood to the liver

        ii) What is the difference in composition of blood in the two blood vessel mentioned in (i) above

45. A food substance was heated with soda lime (NaOH or CaO) a gas was evolved which turned litmus paper blue. The gas smelled of urine. What is?

        i) The nature of this food substance

        ii) Name the gas evolved

46. i) Why cardiac muscle of the left ventricle thicker than that of the right ventricle

        ii) Explain the changes which take place in breathing of people who

    a) Take exercise

    b) Who climb high altitude like Mount Kilimanjaro?

47. a) Name two enzyme found in the human guts which break down carbohydrate and in each case state the site of production, the substrate and product

    b)Mr Gamanye brought a fresh water fish from Lake Msozi in his aquarium to Mkasika. On arrival he placed the water in the aquarium with water from India Ocean, after a short period all fish in the aquarium dead, explain why fish dead

48. Below is list of organism occupying a certain habitat, Hawk, Locust, Lizard and wild cat?

    a) Construct a food web using these organisms

    b) From the food web you have constructed, identify various food chains

    c) Mention two group of organism that must be included in the food web in order to balance the             ecosystem

49. a) Classify the following organism to class level giving one distinctive feature for each classification level

        i. Bean plant

b) i) Identify two common features present in villus and alveoli

        ii) Mention the role played by each feature in the structure mentioned above.

50. Write an essay on a balanced diet using the following guidelines

        i) Component of balanced diet and their importance

        ii) Deficiency disease which may result when an individual lacks vitamin A, B, and Iodine.

        iii) Three factor which contribute to lack of balanced diet among children in Tanzania.

51.a) Differentiate between

        i) Prey and Predator

        ii) Population and community

        iii) Explain artificial ecosystem and natural ecosystem

    b) Why ecological pyramid taper at the apex

52. What are the difference between traditional method and modern method of food preservation and processing?

53. Explain how breathing takes place in human being

54. Write an essay titled “If there were no fungi”

55. Explain why workers who most of the time work while seated need to moderate amount of carbohydrate in their diet.

56. Ruminant can digest cellulose, human being cannot explain

57. State the difference between ruminants and non-ruminant digestive system

58. Describe what take place during the right and dark reaction of the photosynthesis process.

59. How does osmosis help plant cell to maintain their shape.

60. Explain why when someone drinks alcohol urinate too much than normal

61. Outline the relationship between blood group and blood transfusion

62. Briefly describe the component of the vascular system.

63. “Without root no transpiration” explain this statement

64. Explain the role of root hair in absorbing water and mineral into the xylem

65. Explain the advantage of breathing through the nostril rather than the mouth in human being

66. Outline the change that occurs in the ribcage and the diaphragm during inspiration and expiration.

67. Briefly explain difference between respiration and breathing.

68. Briefly explain

        i) Why is human circulatory system called a closed system

        ii) Why must the respiratory surface possess a good blood supply?

69. What are the similarities between a tomato cell and cheek cell?

70. Mention five known respiratory disease in human

71. Similar type of human cell were placed in three different solution namely A, B and C respectively after sometime a cell in solution A burst, a cell in solution B Shrunk and shrived and the cell in solution C didn’t change.

72. Majority of people believes that all bacteria are harmful as biologist; explain how bacteria are beneficial and four ways in which are harmful to human being.

73. Explain the following observation

        a) The freshly cut stump of the tree will continue releasing water for some time after the tree has             been cuts

        b) Plant grow in an enclosed greenhouse have lower rate of transpiration than plant growing in the         open

74. Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

75. Explain how breathing takes place in human being

76. Why do amino acids react with both acid and base?

77. Explain why a fish suffocate on dry land though atmospheric air contain more oxygen than water.

78. Why rate of breathing increase quickly during exercise.

79. Give six reasons why transportation it is important to your life

80. Briefly explain any three factors that can affect the rate of gaseous exchange in human

81. Write chemical equation representing anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration

82. What are the characteristics of monosaccharaides

83. What would happen if the epiglottis is removed from human body?

84. Explain advantage of kingdom Fungi

85. What are the mechanisms of aerobic respiration?

86. Explain the factor affecting the rate of respiration.

87. Explain disorder/disease of human digestive system

88. a) What is flatulence?

    b) Explain the prevention and control measure of flatulence

89. Describe how a plant leaf is adapted to photosynthesis

90. Draw the following cycle and explain their significance

        a) Water cycle

        b) Nitrogen cycle

91. Mention the process in human body that involve

        a) Diffusion

        b) Osmosis

        c) Mass flow

92. Explain what would happen if

        a) Spleen and tonsil are removed from the body

        b) Capillaries had thick wall

        c) Left ventricle had thin wall

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